ROAD reorg

 ROAD reorg 

 

Regimental reorganzation under ROAD concept

Jack Falcone picked up this  info from, usarmygermany.com/Units/USAREUR_Divisions.htm, so he says they receive the credit.  

The implementation of ROAD (Reorganization Objective Army Divisions) structure took place from1962 to 1964.  The source of this information comes from, The United States Army in Europe 1953-1963, by D.J.Hickman, HQ USAREUR 1964.  Originally the pentonic divisions were effective combat units but by the 1960's world events focused attention on the fact that Army combat forces faced a wide range of possible situations..  The emerging strategy was termed a "strategy of flexible response."  It was felt that combat units would have to be tailored to meet specific situations, that their organizational structure would have to reflect the increasing probability of limited conventional war.  The outgrowth of this new concept known as Reorganization Objective Army Divisions (ROAD), designed for specific yet varying strategic and tactical requirements.  There was no let up in the development of U.S. nuclear capability, but emphasis was placed on the requirements of limited war.  Seventh Army's divisions were not reorganized under ROAD until 1963, but preparations began much earlier.  USAREUR had to have new and better equipment.  The ROAD concept required the complete mechanization of combat of combat units and an increased speed and mobility potential.  Many of the army's small arms were carryovers from WWII.  In 1961 USAREUR began to receive a series of newly developed equipment.  In September, Seventh Army Units were issued the first shipments of the M-14 rifle that replaced, in a single weapon, the M-1 rifle, the carbine, the Browning Automatic rifle and the Thompson submachine gun.  The new, lighter and faster M113 armored personnel carriers proved to be vastly superior to the heavier obsolete vehicles they replaced.  The shoulder fired M79 grenade launcher filled the gap between the maximum range of a hand grenade and the minimum range of the mortar.  SP/4 Jack LaPiana of 1/48 at Worms was one of the first soldiers issued the M-79 and colt 45 pistol in Company A.  The new Davy Crockett gave the infantryman more firepower than he had ever had.  In 1962 this new equipment was in the hands of the USAREUR infantryman in extensive testing.  In addition the Iroquois and Mohawk helicopters gave the infantryman greater air attack mobility.  All of this was necessary to support the aviation missions of ROAD divisions.  By the time 1963 came to implement the change over USAREUR was ready for a smooth and rapid transition that would not jeopardize its combat readiness..  All divisions completed the transition by mid-October 1963.  The ROAD organization provided USAREUR with modern, flexible forces.  There were 5 Divisions that were part of ROAD,
1- 3rd Armored Div.
2- 4th Armored Div.
3- 3rd Infantry Div.
4- 8th Infantry Div.
5- 24th Infantry Div.
Each division had three types of combat maneuver battalions,
1- Tank
2- Mechanized Infantry
3- airborne
The fourth type, straight infantry battalions were used only in Berlin. 
Each battalion had a Company trained in reconnaissance squadrons with helicopters. This was the beginning of the LRRP's. 

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